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Building Styles

Second Empire (1860 - 1900)

Origins --- --- Second Empire Architecture

Second Empire in Europe------Paris Champs Elysées ___Mansard Roof - Blois 1635

Second Empire Residences--- Belleville - Glanmore---- Belleville - Dr. Potts house---- Belleville---

-- Sault St. Marie-----Burlington-----Madoc--- Woodstock--- Waterdown---- Mallorytown

------- Paris----- Simcoe----- Hamilton---- Toronto George Brown House----- Toronto Dundas Street--

--Mansard Roofs AGO---Fergus-- Peterborough- -

Second Empire Commercial---- Simcoe--- Brantford--- -- Osler Block Dundas-- -- Fergus


This is an essentially French style brought to Canada during the mid to late 19th century from the Second Empire in France of Napoléon III. The First Empire collapsed in 1815, the monarchy was then restored, and the Second Empire was led by Napoléon III, nephew of Napoléon I, from 1852 to 1870. This style is lavish, grand and complex. It enjoyed a huge success in large public buildings for a short while, then for reasons that are difficult to grasp, it went out of fashion. Sadly, many of the public buildings were demolished.

Second Empire Architecture

For smaller buildings and residences the style is less elaborate, but is still ornate and very impressive. Windows are generally high with elegant surrounding moldings and there is always a Mansard roof punctuated with gabled or elliptical dormers. Roofs and balconies are generally embellished with iron cresting, and the roof itself is often dichromatic.

Second Empire in Europe

"Architecture has recorded the great ideas of the human race. Not only every religious symbol, but every human thought has its page in that vast book." Victor Hugo

When Napoleon III took power in France in the mid 19th century, he finished the transformation of the city initiated by Napoleon I. Monumental buildings populated grand boulevards, cafes and cafe society took to the streets. The Mansard roof, initiated at Fontainbleau, was revived and found new life by opening up the attics of high priced urban buildings. These became the fashionable garrets of painters poets and romantics.

Walking around Paris, you will see long stretches of buildings, whole quartiers, built in this style. The ‘cheesy', overdone, sometimes truly hideous paintings of Paris ‘in the rain' or Paris "afternoon" that can be found in any second rate shopping mall or discount store are usually paintings with Second Empire buildings in the background.

Click Hotpoints for descriptions of terms in both text and images.



Paintings of 'Paris in the Rain", "Paris in Spring", "Paris in Bloom" are all pictures of the Second Empire buildings in Paris France, in various seasons and weather conditions. Modern travelers to France identify Paris with the Second Empire Style because it is so prevalent.

The Champs Elysées is the most famous street in Paris and a principle tourist destination. It is almost all Second Empire. The great landscape architect Louis Le Notre set up the boulevard in the time of Louis XIV, but it was not until the era of the Second Empire that the buildings were built and the very rich and famous moved in.

The Second Empire style is characterized by the Mansard roof (shown in the original below) with a quite lavish collection of classical elements on a subtle achromatic facade.

The Second Empire style on the Champs Elysées.

Paris Opera House


The Louvre was designed for Napoleon III. It is one of the best examples of the most exuberant Second Empire buildings. This is a pavilion on the wing extending into the Tuillerie Gardens.

The dormer has an abundance of carved figures including two caryatids, two acropodiums, a full entablature, a keystoned arch, a triumphal sculptural group, margents (a floral motif), a balustrade and scrolls extending along the parapet. The dormer is part of the mansard roof.

The three levels of the main body of the pavilion are similarly adorned. Everything from aedicules to banded rustication.

Napoleon has the distinction of being the only ruler of France to be both elected as president and emperor as part of the royal family. He is, in fact, the last royal emperor of France.

The Second Empire style in the Louvre palace renovated for Napoleon III

Paris Opera House

Blois 1635

Francois Mansard

This is one of Mansard's finest works showing the grand simplicity of the French Classical style. The massing of the blocks is masterful. Like the Coliseum, the ground floor has the Doric order, the second level has the Ionic, and the third or attic story has a truncated version of the Corinthian order.

The crowning feature of this design is the high pitched roof with two angles broken by dormers that bears his name.


The original Mansard roof found in the Chateau Blois

Second Empire Residences

Second Empire houses in Ontario are usually brick, though stone and the occasional wooden house can be found. They are usually found in the best part of town, usually with sumptuous gardens surrounding them. The roofs, more often than not, are dichromatic slate with intricate patterns. Most

notable, of course, is the roof line. This can be curved, squared, undulating, punctuated with dormers or even gabled, but it is always in the Mansard style: gently sloping on top with a swift vertical drop at the edge.

Glanmore Belleville 1882-1883

Belleville has some of the finest 19th century architecture in the province. Block after block of the downtown core is preserved in pristine condition. The spirit of each neighborhood is intact and the buildings are just singing.

Glanmore was probably the largest and most grand of the Second Empire buildings in Belleville. It was built for a wealthy banker and financier named John Philpot Curran Philips in 1882 1883. A history of the families that lived in the house for the next 90 years is well documented under the Hastings County Museum site.

The building was designed by Thomas Hanley. It has the asymmetrical massing popular in the Victorian times. Note the scalloped frieze under the bracketed cornice.

1883 - 1971: Home of the Phillips-Burrows-Faulkner family
1971 - to date - Canadian National Historic Site - The Hastings County Museum, Belleville, Ontario

Belleville Ontario

Glanmore Belleville

On the street level are many doorways and large windows. A porch on the street level both protects the salon from direct sunlight and allows for the occupants of the room to exit onto a limited porch area. The porch has decorative brackets and ornate iron cresting.

This is an impressive, ornate, even over-the-top house. But it works. Why can't we do this anymore? Where has our sense of balance and proportion gone? Buildings like this set the standard for opulent ornament and conspicuous consumption. They are still around because they are lovely. Many of our new opulent houses looked more supersized than grandiose. We need to keep looking back.

Street level porch on The Hastings County Museum, Belleville, Ontario

Belleville Ontario

Glanmore Belleville

This detail of the roof at Glanmore shows the gentle concave curve of the roof. There is an ornate bracketed cornice along the eave side of the roof, complete with a scalloped frieze. The brackets are painted the same colours as the slate making up the roof finish. There is decorative woodwork along the top of the round-headed dormer windows. The top edge of the roof has a smaller cornice with delicate brackets. The edge of the roof is finished with iron cresting. The exterior of each dormer is finished with copper.

Christina Cameron and Janet Wright have identified the designer.

"The designer, Thomas Hanley, is listed in the Belleville directories as a carpenter, builder and architect from 1878 to 1902. Nothing is yet known of his origins or training, however judging from his design of Glanmore he was either an architect of considerable skill or a very clever copyist of contemporary copy books."

Second Empire Style in Canada p. 71

Mansard roof on Glanmore - The Hastings County Museum -  Belleville

Belleville Ontario

Dr. Pott's House Belleville 1879 - 80

Two or three streets away is another grand Second Empire building. The asymmetrical façade is almost a mirror image of Glanmore, though there are many differences. This has only one dormer on the bay roof where Glanmore has three. The dormers on the other parts of the roof are capped with an intricate triangular pediment. On Glanmore the hoodmolds are stone, here they are patterned brick. A string course of dogstooth brick runs along the top of the street level. The brackets under the eave are ornate console designs, but there is no frieze. (Christmas lights also run along the edge. These are not original.)

The wooden porch and verandah are entirely different. This is most probably the work of Thomas Hastings, but no direct listing has been found.



Dr. Pott's House Second Empire Belleville

Belleville Ontario

Dr. Pott's House Belleville

Many houses of this era were home to a large extended family. There are many doors on the street and upper level, and these open on to porches or verandahs. This would allow the various members of the family to have some private space. It was also a huge advantage during the 1950s, to 1990s when these large homes were divided into separate apartments.


Dr. Pott's House Second Empire Belleville

Belleville Ontario


Just around the corner is a smaller example with iron cresting, arched dormers, a Mansard roof, and ornate cornice brackets. The windows within the Mansard roof have heavy round-headed cornices and brackets.

The walls are undulating and rooms are intricately placed with maximum access to balconies. The massing of this house is completely different than the two above. Instead of being asymmetrical High Victorian it is much more reminiscent of the homes in Quebec and the eastern provinces. The first floor has a long covered sun porch on the street side, like a fine Parisian café.


Second Empire house in Belleville

Belleville Ontario

Belleville balcony detail

This detail shows a round headed dormer with a large curved cornice complete with a flared projection.

The iron cresting has large newels at the corners. Under the dormer and the Mansard roof is a small balcony with Tuscan columns, an architrave, a row of dentils and a large cornice. The door opening onto the balcony has a segmental arch.

The same cornice treatment is found on both levels.


If you are a bit confused about the difference between a balcony, a verandah and a porch, see the page on porches.

Small balcony on a Second Empire House in Belleville Ontario

Belleville Ontario


To the left of the balcony is another round-headed dormer with the same decorative woodwork.


This small essay in perfection shows that quality is much more important than quantity. The owners of this place should be given an award. It is beautifully maintained, and has been since the first time I included it on this site almost ten years ago.


Small window detail on a Second Empire House in Belleville Ontario

Belleville Ontario

Sault Ste. Marie

Here is a vernacular, wooden version of the Second Empire style. The Mansard roof has dormers, but instead of shingles, the roof is finished in wood siding. The tower takes the form of a wooden turret, and the iron cresting is also of wood. Under the turret is the opening to a balcony with a wooden balustrade.

On the street level there is a bay window with small pediment-shaped cornices and a large roof. The other first floor windows also have pedimented cornices as well as painted shutters.

The main entrance is a glassed in porch or sunroom. This house has all the elements of the Second Empire house, but everything is made of wood.

Second Empire house in Sault St. Marie Ontario

Sault Ste. Marie Ontario


Like many Second Empire houses, this one was divided up and rented out for many years. Luckily the tenants were good people and the main structure of the building was left intact. When the current owners got hold of it, however, it needed more than a little TLC. It is now restored with the kind of attention to detail and accuracy that we can only hope for in other neglected buildings.

The front facade is stunning. The dormers on the Mansard roof extend through the roof cornice in a very unusual way. The brackets on the roof cornice are console shaped and beautiful Small cornices above the doors allow for some protection for both door and visitors. The transoms are protected as well. On both the front and the side entrances, the transoms are stained glass.

Fabulously restored  suburban Second Empire house in Burlington

Burlington Ontario

Stair detail Burlington

Notice how the roof has a patterned tin finish and the stairs are decorated under the treads along the stringer cover.


Second Empire stair detail

Burlington Ontario


The interior molding on the Burlington house is extraordinary. Every door on the main floor is capped with this lovely large band adorned with chevrons along the top. The rosette blocks are pointed as well. This is remeniscent of Romanesque molding from France in the 13th and 14th centuries. It's just lovely.


Second Empire door molding detail

Burlington Ontario

Dale Mansion Madoc 1900

Not too far up the street at Madoc there is another Second Empire house with a similar dichromatic mansard roof. This was originally built for John C. Dale, a banker. The house is poised on top of a hill with 12 acres of magnificent gardens descending beneath, adding to the palatial character of the house. The builder was Thomas Hanley who also built Glanmor house in
Belleville .

The owners of the Dale Mansion have done a good job updating the windows but still maintaining the style of the building. The iron cresting has been removed.


Second Empire in Madoc ON

Madoc Ontario

Woodstock 1880s

The citizen's of Woodstock are proud to say that they "kept the pavement out". They have been relentless in caring for their built heritage. As a result, almost every downtown street has a gem from the past, like this one, that is beautifully restored and kept in pristine beauty.

This building is a good example of a vernacular adaptation of the Second Empire style. If you cover the roof, the front door and bay window could be either Victorian or Italianate. The massing of the tower on the roof, however, places it squarely in the Second Empire style. Down the street there is another beautiful example that has, unfortunately, been improved over the years.

Second Empire fully restored in Woodstock ON.This house dodged the bullet. The following one didn't.


Woodstock 1880s

The Mansard roof on this is still intact with the fish scale shingles and shouldering on the trim. The iron cresting, cornice brackets and window surrounds on the example above have been removed either through misguided improvement or because of the cost of maintaining them. The current owners are slowly bringing this beauty back to its original charm.


Edifice magazine, the best Old Home magazine in Canada, has a page called "What were they thinking' files. This could be an example for that page. Someone actually painted over dichromatic slate on the roof. Staggering. See below for a detail of this slate. One can reasonably assume that these two buildings were made by the same craftsmen.

Lovely Second Empire house that has seen unfortunate 'improvements' but is in good hands and is on the way to recovery.


Woodstock 1880s

The average life of an asphalt shingle is 20 years, sometimes much less. Here we have slate shingles that have been in place for over 100 years.

The wood trim on the windows might take a bit of work every few years, but isn't it worth it?

Second Empire window detail from Woodstock ON.


Woodstock 1880s

The beauty of these homes is in the finish materials and the propertions. This detail of the bay and dormer shows the craftsmanship of the original building.

Second Empire roof and cornice detail Woodstock ON



This Second Empire mansion is in the midst of being remodeled. It has a tall tower between two projecting bays. Both tower and bays have Mansard roofs with high round-headed dormer windows. There is an elaborate roof cornice with large cornice brackets.

The second floor has tall segmentally arched windows with central stone keystones.

The central tower is square with an iron balcony atop the wooden entrance. The left wing of the building has a similar wooden porch.




Second Empire House in Mallorytown

Mallorytown Ontario


This brick building in Waterdown is in much better repair. The roof has dormers with very small windows but large cornice returns. Under the roof is a large cornice with heavy cornice brackets.

The second floor has segmentally arched windows with eyebrow cornices and large keystones. The size and quality of the glass in the sash windows suggests that it is not original. There is a band or string course separating the first and second floors.

The front door has a large segmental transom, that is one solid piece of glass. The doors are also glass, which suggests that they are not original either. Nonetheless, this is a very well kept example of an urban Second Empire home.

Second Empire residence in Waterdown

Waterdown Ontario


Paris Ontario is lucky to have a small nucleus of very informed architectural historians and restoration people ( free plug for Andrew Skuse of Heritage Restoration in Paris who could be even more neurotic than I am about saving old buildings). In addition there is a ferocious band of people trying to save the Gothic Revival city hall.


This kind of interest attracts people who have both the will and the energy to restore buildings that have been neglected. This lovely place in paris was owned by an absentee landlord who did his best from a distance but the property got neglected and was not in its best shape when taken over by the current owners. Just look at the wonderful job they have done.

Second Empire in Paris Ontario

Paris Ontario


The side of the building looks like a Queen Anne with the sweeping verandah and textured surfaces. The gently curved roof and solid foundation plantings really makes it nestle into the property like an English cottage. The dichromatic slate work on the roof and the dormers are definitely Second Empire, but you can see how the builder molded the style to fit the lot.

Second Empire in Paris Ontario

Paris Ontario


Speaking of molding, compared to the moldings in the Second Empire residence in Burlingotn seen above Ontario, these are huge. The inside of the bay window on the front facade is virtually all molding; there is no room for any wall between the windows; I wonder if there IS any wall between the moldings.

The moldings are at least eight inches wide. The owners of this house are as meticulous as those in Burlington.

In both cases the landlord was an absentee. The houses were cut into smaller sections and abandoned to the whims of transient occupants. The amount of work it takes to restore these places cannot be overestimated. There were once grants to help home owners restore properties. That was when taxes were much lower. Before the government improved its services.

Second Empire in Paris Ontario - bay window detail

Paris Ontario


This staircase took many hours of hard work to restore but isn't it worth it. Just look at those lovely consoles and the elegant newel post.

Once you see what a young couple in Paris Ontario can do with a staircase that was all but ruined, and what another family in Belleville has done with a 130 year old second floor coffee porch, the daunting task of having someone refinish an old property for you, or of doing it yourself, seems more achievable.


There are wonderful people around who know how to restore buildings and have a lot of tricks up their sleeves. Edifice magazine has many articles on the proper methods of stripping wood and restoring trim. When you compare this quality with what is often being presented as 'craftsmanship' these days, a few hours of work surely seems to be worth the effort.

Second Empire staircase in Paris Ontario

Paris Ontario


Another window surround that glitters like thick Cool Whip.

Second Empire in Paris Ontario - window detail.

Paris Ontario


This photo taken 10 years ago is the same house in the early morning in late summer. This like so many others is simply timeless.

Second Empire in Paris

Paris Ontario


Like the example from Mallorytown, this building has a tall, square tower. The roof of the tower has high iron cresting and an intricate cornice over a Mansard roof. On four sides of the tower there are round dormers. The roof cornice is very large with heavy cornice brackets.

The main body of the building is quite Italianate, with a large cornice, corner brackets, and brick molding under the cornice. There are hoodmolds, keystones, and label stops over the high windows and large brick quoins on all corners. A large lunette over the solid, wooden, front door has an agraffe. Finally, on the right side, there is an arcaded veranda with ornate molding.

The building is of brick with wood detailing, and it is beautifully maintained.

Second Empire in Simcoe

Simcoe Ontario


Also in Simcoe is a large residence that, because of the tower, might easily be taken for an Italian Villa style. A closer look, however, will show that there are no elements of Italian design here other than the square tower. There is a large balcony on the tower over a veranda by the front door as opposed to the very much smaller balconies or even balconettes found in the Villa style. The windows are largely segmental with simple cornices. A bay window on the main building has iron cresting, something not found in Italianate designs.

The most obvious difference, however, is the Mansard roofs and dormers that are strictly French. Even the decorated cornices and cornice brackets have a French flare.

Second Empire Villa in Simcoe

Simcoe Ontario

Herkimer Street 1880s

Along with the Italian influence came the French with the Second Empire buildings of the late 19th century. Particularly for residential architecture, people wanted a style that reflected their cosmopolitan tastes and, unlike today, they were willing to pay for craftsmen who would realize their architectural ambitions. This detail from James Balfour's lovely terrace house on Herkimer Street shows the kind of elaborate fretwork that was possible at the time.

The trefoil patterns in the spandrels over the doorway illustrate a Gothic influence, as does the lancet or gothic arch, while the column capitals are verging on a Renaissance style, like that found in the French Chateaux. This is not so much an entrance as a portal.

Second Empire doorway on Herkimer Street in Hamilton Ontario.


Herkimer Street

In the 1860s the Mansard roof was introduced in Ontario as another venue for innovation.

This roof, found on all Second Empire buildings was first popular with Louis XIV in his palaces. By opening up the roof and adding dormers, you have far more space in which you can house your servants.

In Ontario the curvedround headed dormers of French derivation are often finished in copper or iron to protect them from the elements. The detail on top of this window would be cast iron.

There is the same attention to detail in the woodworking that is found on the entrance above.Notice how the cornice here is visible only from this dormer, which would have been the dormitory for the servants, but it is still adorned with a set of lovely brackets.

Second Empire Roof seen from the kitchen window.


Herkimer Street

Inside the Mansard roof we can see the amount of space that is actually available.

Some enterprising soul in Hamilton has restored the Herkimer building and sold each floor as a condo. Just look at the cool space inside the Mansard roof. Just look at the view from the kitchen. Who wouldn't want to spend time here?

Second Empire mansard roof interior transformed into a modern kitchen.


Herkimer Street

From the street the façade is a mixture of many elements. The roof has two lovely dormers, completely different in style. The orange brick is native to hamilton. Stone quoins are used to accent the corners. The same stone is used as a mold and skewback for the windows.

The street level has an ornate bay window with a large bracketed cornice and decorative facings on the window panels. The porch has Romanesque paired colonnetes, Gothic trefoils, Italianate brackets and Renaissance panels.

It is truly eclectic and truly magnificent. Instead of having the Building Department make people pass a test on the Building Code, the tradesmen know what they're doing anyway even if the designer doesn't, applicants for building permits should need to pass a test on whether they can design a doorway. If they come up with something as good as this, they no longer need to apply. They should be given free reign to build what they want.

Second Empire house on Herkimer Street in Hamilton ON.


Herkimer Street

Design teachers could no better than give students a dormer and say 'make it work'. This breaks all the rules..... but it works.

Dormer detail from the Second Empire Mansard roof found in Hamilton Ontario


Toronto George Brown House

The larger Second Empire residences, once the fine homes of the rich and famous, are either turned into museums or condos.

In Toronto the George Brown House, home of the 19th century Globe editor and namesake for the college, is a National Historic Site.

It is well maintained and open to the public. The proportions of the building are lovely. The windows in the bay windows are slightly longer and more vertical than similar windows in Italianate houses.


George brown House in Toronto Ontario

Toronto Ontario

George Brown House

There is a complicated Mansard roof with lots of finely detailed dormers and a lovely wooden trim along the outside.


Second Empire Apartment

Toronto Ontario

Toronto Dundas Street

Dormer designs in Toronto are many and varied.


Dormer detail Second Empire block on Dundas Street Toronto

Toronto Ontario

Toronto Dundas Street

By 1870 Toronto was becoming densely populated. The George Brown house is a detached dwelling, but many of the other Second Empire buildings are in row houses. They have the Mansard roof and the classical/French detailing but, as you can see, they do not resemble at all the regularized facades of Paris France. The exterior finish is usually brick and there are usually full bay windows on the buildings. Except for the roof, they are really High Victorian.


Second Empire block on Dundas Street Toronto


Ghery reflects on the Second Empire

No other roof type would look quite so spectacular reflected on the undulating glass surface of Ghery's spectacular new entrance to the Art Gallery of Ontario.


Second Empire block on Dundas Street Toronto reflected in the stunning facade of Frank Ghery's AGO



The Second Empire style descended into disrepute during the 1960s and 1970s when it was seen to be a 'monster movie' film set style. The Addams family lived in a classic Second Empire. The Munsters had a Victorian mansion with Second Empire detailing.

Because they are large and filled with exotic detail, when seen in the rain they are not as inviting as when seen with cheery Christmas lights or spring blossoms. A gold brick with a Mansard roof can look imposing as this one in Toronto or charming as this ones in Belleville. It is all a matter of timing and sunlight. I'll take another go at this when the sun comes out.


Second Empire Toronto

Toronto Ontario


It is very difficult to find a building style that isn't done to perfection in stone in Fergus.

The Mansard roof shown here is a double mansard popular in the UK in the 18th century. It is found on the Royal Circle and the Royal Crescent in Bath as well as the many of the row houses in London, Edinburrough and Glasgow.

The dormers have wonderful vergeboarding. Stone copestones are found on both edges of the roof. these were put in to prevent the spread of fire.

One of the most endearing parts of this façade are the carved scrolls on the second floor window surrounds. The wooden cornices are also lovely.

On the street elevel there are Florentine arches on the window and door. This place is just charming.

Second Empire Toronto

Fergus Ontario


This is a very rare example of a rowhouse built in the Second Empire style. Each unit has a second storey bay window, at least one fireplace, as can be seen by the chimneys, and a separate entrance.

The curved Mansard roof on this central pavilion has a dormer and two roundels. Under this is an entablature and an ornate cornice with heavy brackets. A central bay window and two high sash windows with coloured lintels completes the second floor of the pavilion. Across the front of the building is a long, covered porch held in place by Doric colonettes. The colour scheme accentuates the design.


Second Empire Apartment Block in peterborough ON

Peterborough Ontario

Second Empire Commercial

during its hayday between 1865 and 1880, many commercial and civic buildings were built in the Second Empire style. The Post Office in Toronto at Adelaide Street East and Toronto Street is only one example.

Second Empire is very impressive for restaurants, boutiques and high end shopping spots. Thank goodness Europe has not been so quick to demolish its historic buildings and the Champs Elysee remains intact.


Here is a completely different kind of Second Empire building used for commercial purposes. The roof has the standard Mansard slope and dormers. In this case there are four dormers, two of which are roundels.

Beneath the roof are dentils and a row of chevrons, then another row of dentils making three decorative bands all in brick.

The second storey windows have round-headed arches and keystones. These windows are extremely high, and suggest that a lot of light was needed in the interior.

On the ground floor are segmentally arched windows, also with keystones, and dripmolds. The pilasters separating the bays of the windows have brick molding.

This is a very intriguing building.

Second Empire in Simcoe

Simcoe Ontario


Now the residences for the Brantford Campus of Laurier University, this building is an example of a renovated 1880 Second Empire style. The building is white brick constructed using the Flemish bond pattern with grey brick detailing. Above each window are ornamental dripmoulds with keystones and labels stops. Five horizontal bands (or string courses) accentuate the design.

The roof is a Mansard style with dormers; the central dormer has an elliptical pediment. As a federal building, it lacks the iron cresting and other fancy ornament found in residential applications.

Second Empire Federal Building

Brantford Ontario - Renovated by Cianfrone architects


As Cameron and Wright have noted, the Osler block 'has been stripped of all its festive Second Empire dressresulting in the present austere appearance.' As you can see, the roofline is taken directly from the Louvre Napoleon III wings.



Second Empire Villa in Simcoe

Dundas Ontario


This commercial block in Fergus has a mixture of the Mansard roof that curves gently in and the Mansard roof that curves gently out. The dormers on the turret are interesting as well.


Second Empire Apartment Block in peterborough ON

Fergus Ontario


Second Empire Extra Reading and Films


Blumenson, John. Ontario Architecture A Guide to Styles and Terms. 1978

Cameron, Christina, Wright, Janet. Second Empire Style in Canada. Ottawa, Parks Canada, National Historic Parks and Sties branch, 1980


MacRae, Marion, and Anthony Adamson. The Ancestral Roof: Domestic Architecture of Upper Canada. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1963.

For information on Second Empire architecture in specific areas within Ontario there are some very good books listed under the About page.


Becoming Jane - Anne Hathaway

East of Eden - Jimmy Dean

Persuasion, (1995) (2007)

Pride and Prejudice, (1995) (2005)

Six Feet Under (2000 - 2006)



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